English Grammar

  •  Vocabulary list for KET (pdf file from Cambridge webpage) - 29 pages in one file.
  •  The KET Vocabulary List was originally developed by Cambridge ESOL.The list covers vocabulary appropriate to the A2 level on the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) and includes receptive vocabulary (words that thecandidate is expected to understand but which is not the focus of a question
  •  Vocabulary list for PET (pdf file from Cambridge webpage) - 51 pages in one file.
  • The content of the PET Vocabulary List is general in nature and is unlikely to
    cover completely the productive vocabulary that may be required by all candidates.Candidates should know the specific lexis they will need to describe themselves and their lives,for example hobbies,likes and dislikes.
  • CONDITIONALS------------------------------------------------



    long forms short/contracted forms
    I + If I study, I will pass the exam. If I study, I'll pass the exam.
    - If Sue studies, she will not fail the exam.
    If I do not study, I will fail the exam.
    If Sue studies, she won't fail the exam.
    If I don't study, I'll fail the exam.
    II + If he studied, he would pass the exam. If he studied, He'd pass the exam.
    - If Sue studied, she would not fail the exam.
    If it did not rain, I would go to the beach.
    If Sue studied, she wouldn't fail the exam.
    If it didn't rain, I'd go to the beach.
    III + If I had studied, I would have passed the exam. If I'd studied, I'd have passed the exam.
    - If I had studied, I would not have failed the exam.
    If I had not studied, I would have failed the exam.
    If I'd studied, I wouldn't have failed the exam.
    If I hadn't studied, I'd have failed the exam.

    "0" Conditional   - (something that always happens) - Verbs are in the Present Tense.
             +  If you burn the toast, it smells horrible.               - - - - -
             -   If I do not water the plants, they die.               If I don't water the plants, they die.

                                  USES                                                             SUMMARY
    0 - Always happens - Scientific facts                               -          IF + vb present, vb present
    I  - A general truth, we don't know for sure. Future          -          IF + vb present, will_____
    II - Imagine "what would happen if..."- Presente Subj Esp      - IF + vb past simp, would____
    III - Refer to past-impossible to change                                   - IF + vb past perfect, would have ___
    - IF I was  WERE you, I would visit your grandmother. (2nd conditional)
    - UNLESS (IF not- A menos que/ si no...)
  •  CAUSATIVE CASE -------------------------------------------------------------
We use "have / get + object + past participle (-ed / 3rd C IrrVbs)" when we arrange for someone else to do a service for us. If we want to identify the person doing the service, we use "BY ...." (by Peter).
My parents are going to have the house painted
Have you had your computer repaired yet?
I want to get my hair cut this afternoon.
My mobile crashed yesterday, so I had it checked. ( Se me colgó el movil ayer, asi que hice que lo miraran/comprobaran)

In summary, "Expresan acciones que se encargan a alguien o que las hacen por ti". Tiene un poco de sentido pasivo ya que el sustantivo que va en medio recibe la acción del verbo que va en participio, pero se suele traducir en voz activa. GET es más informal que HAVE por lo que su uso en la calle o por la gente es más común.